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Working in the years just before World War I, the Futurists portrayed their subjects—often humans, machines, and vehicles in motion—with fragmented forms and surfaces that evoke the energy and dynamism of urban life in the early 20th century.

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Related: Lorraine O'Grady. A black-and-white photographic print made by exposing paper, which has been made light-sensitive by a coating of gelatin silver halide emulsion, to artificial or natural light; a photographic process invented by Dr. Richard Leach Maddox in A water-based matte paint, sometimes called opaque watercolor, composed of ground pigments and plant-based binders, such as gum Arabic or gum tragacanth.

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The opacity of gouache derives from the addition of white fillers, such as clay or chalk, or a higher ratio of pigment to binder. Related: Mona Hatoum. Related: Hong Hao. Characterized by ludicrous, repulsive, or incongruous distortion, as of appearance or manner; ugly, outlandish, or bizarre, as in character or appearance.

A performance, event, or situation considered as art, especially those initiated by the artists group Fluxus in the early s. Such events are often planned, but involve elements of improvisation, may take place in any location, are multidisciplinary, and frequently involve audience participation. Related: Participation and Audience Involvement. An African American literary, artistic, and intellectual flowering, centered in the New York City neighborhood of Harlem and spanning the s to the mids. Considered one of the most creative periods in American history, it fostered a new African American cultural identity.

A pictographic communication system, closely associated with the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are stylized, recognizable pictures of the things and ideas represented. Related: Georges-Pierre Seurat. Having the character of an icon, i. April Hong Hao.

Subject matter in visual art, often adhering to particular conventions of artistic representation, and imbued with symbolic meanings. Montroig, July —winter Leni Riefenstahl. The Dream. Hito Steyerl. The Hat Makes the Man. May 6, Richard Prince. Rejecting established styles, the Impressionists began experimenting in the early s with a brighter palette of pure unblended colors, synthetic paints, sketchy brushwork, and subject matter drawn from their direct observations of nature and of everyday life in and around Paris.

They worked out of doors, the better to capture the transient effects of sunlight on the scenes before them. With their increased attention to the shifting patterns of light and color, their brushwork became rapid, broken into separate dabs that better conveyed the fleeting quality of light. In , they held their first group exhibition in Paris.

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From this criticism, they were mockingly labeled Impressionists. They continued exhibiting together until , at which point many of the core artists were taking their work in new directions. The act of improvising, that is, to make, compose, or perform on the spur of the moment and with little or no preparation. A flat slanting surface, connecting a lower level to a higher level.


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Examples include slides, ramps, and slopes. A field of design concerned with the aesthetics, form, functionality, and production of manufactured consumer objects. The period beginning around characterized by a shift away from traditional industry and noted for the abundant publication, consumption, and manipulation of information, especially by computers and computer networks.

Related: Hito Steyerl. A form of art, developed in the late s, which involves the creation of an enveloping aesthetic or sensory experience in a particular environment, often inviting active engagement or immersion by the spectator. Related: Carolee Schneemann. Bleeding Takari II. One and Three Chairs. An art term describing the systematic inquiry into the practices and ethos surrounding art institutions such as art academies, galleries, and museums, often challenging assumed and historical norms of artistic theory and practice.

It often seeks to make visible the historically and socially constructed boundaries between inside and outside and public and private. A general term for metal-plate printmaking techniques, including etching, drypoint, engraving, aquatint, and mezzotint. The practice of designing digital environments, products, systems, and services for human interaction.

A discipline of design that focuses on the functional and aesthetic aspects of indoor spaces.

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A style of architecture that appeared from to and favored boxy structures, lack of decoration, and the use of materials such as steel, concrete, and glass. The period in American history between World Wars I and II, particularly the s, characterized especially by the rising popularity of jazz and by the open pursuit of social pleasures. It was electrically powered and worked with celluloid film, which was advanced through the camera via a system of sprockets. A peephole at the top of the Kinetoscope allowed people to view moving pictures as the celluloid rolled past.

Related: Donald Judd. London Bridge. Montroig, July —winter Max Ernst. Related: Barrett Lyon, the Opte Project.

The Birth of the World. Montroig, late summer—fall Man Ray. Paris, June—July Rirkrit Tiravanija. A printmaking technique that involves drawing with greasy crayons or a liquid called tusche, on a polished slab of limestone; aluminum plates, which are less cumbersome to handle, may also be used. The term is derived from the Greek words for stone litho and drawing graph. When the greasy image is ready to be printed, a chemical mixture is applied across the surface of the stone or plate in order to securely bond it. This surface is then dampened with water, which adheres only to the blank, non-greasy areas.

Damp paper is placed on top of this surface and run through a press to transfer the image. In addition to the traditional method described here, other types of lithography include offset lithography, photolithography, and transfer lithography. Apparatus used to project an image, usually onto a screen. In use from the 17th to the early 20th century, it is a precursor of the modern slide projector. A transparent slide containing the image was placed between a source of illumination and a set of lenses to focus and direct the image.

Related: Shahzia Sikander. Related: Meret Oppenheim. Paris, Surrealism Yvonne Rainer. The production of large amounts of standardized products through the use of machine-assembly production methods and equipment. Side Chair model DCW. Related: Joseph Cornell. Taglioni's Jewel Casket. Bicycle Wheel. New York, third version, after lost original of Max Ernst. Senga Nengudi. The materials used to create a work of art, and the categorization of art based on the materials used for example, painting [or more specifically, watercolor], drawing, sculpture.

Modern Portraits Tino Sehgal. A drama, such as a play, film, or television program, characterized by exaggerated emotions, stereotypical characters, and interpersonal conflicts; 2. Behavior or occurrences having melodramatic characteristics. A term invented by the artist Kurt Schwitters to describe his works made from scavenged fragments and objects. Transcending physical matter or the laws of nature.

Metaphysics refers to the branch of philosophy that studies that fundamental nature of being and knowing. A primarily American artistic movement of the s, characterized by simple geometric forms devoid of representational content. Relying on industrial technologies and rational processes, Minimalist artists challenged traditional notions of craftsmanship, using commercial materials such as fiberglass and aluminum, and often employing mathematical systems to determine the composition of their works. Simone Forti. A technique involving the use of two or more artistic media, such as ink and pastel or painting and collage, that are combined in a single composition; 2.

A designation for an artist who works with a number of different artistic media. Related: Howardena Pindell. A detailed three-dimensional representation, usually built to scale, of another, often larger, object. In architecture, a three-dimensional representation of a concept or design for a building; 2. A person who poses for an artist.

Related: Carl Elsener. Victorinox Swiss Officers' Knife Champion no. Indestructible Object. Modern can mean related to current times, but it can also indicate a relationship to a particular set of ideas that, at the time of their development, were new or even experimental. April Karl Schmidt-Rottluff.